If the whole drilling operation process is compared to human life activities, then the drilling pump, like the human heart, is the source of continuous circulation of drilling fluid from the surface to the bottom of the well, and then from the bottom to the surface. The drilling pump sucks the drilling fluid in the circulating tank and passes through the high-pressure manifold, water hose, drill pipe and bit nozzle to the bottom of the well with a pressure of 10-30 MPa and a delivery displacement of 20-60 L / s. When it flows through the bit nozzle, it will form a high-pressure jet, which can break the rock, clean the bottom hole and cool the drill bit. When drilling with bottom hole screw or turbodrill, drilling fluid is the power source of the power drilling tool. In the process of drilling, if the drilling pump can not work normally and the drilling fluid can not maintain circulation, downhole drilling engineering accidents will occur, just as the heart of a person stops beating.
Reciprocating pump is a kind of drilling pump commonly used in oil drilling rigs. Its working principle is exactly the same as that of a general reciprocating pump. The power end of drilling pump is a set of crank and slider mechanism. Because the liquid transported is mostly mud, it is also called a mud pump. There are many types of drilling pump, which can be divided into double cylinder pump and triplex reciprocating pump according to the number of hydraulic cylinders of the pump; according to the number of times the piston reciprocates and inhales or discharges liquid at one time, it can be divided into the single-acting pump and double-acting pump. At present, in the domestic and foreign oil drilling rigs, the most widely used are double cylinder double acting and triplex reciprocating pump single-acting piston drilling pump. The working efficiency of the drilling pump directly affects the speed and process of drilling. The pump valve, piston, cylinder liner, and sealing elements of the drilling pump are the weakest parts of drilling pump accessories due to the harsh working environment and conditions caused by long hours of work in drilling fluids containing fine sand.
In recent years, with the joint efforts of scientific research and triplex pump manufacturers, Companies have developed a number of drilling pump accessories with high quality and long life, which greatly improves the working efficiency of the drilling pump.