In order to explore and exploit the oil and natural gas buried deep in the stratum, people must use various drilling equipment and tools to drill through the hard and complex stratum. This is the main task of drilling work. In order to meet the needs of the rapid development of the domestic petroleum industry, it is necessary to drill wells more, fast, and well so as to double the drilling speed. For this reason, while fully mobilizing people's positive factors, it is also necessary to provide drilling workers with advanced and well-performing drilling equipment and tools, and make full use of modern science and technology to serve the oil drilling work.
Oilfield drilling equipment and tools include surface drilling equipment (oil drilling rigs), drill bits, drill strings.
Oil drilling rig of oilfield drilling equipment
1. The composition of the modern oil drilling rig is a large combined unit. According to the needs of drilling, washing, lifting and lowering the drilling tools in the drilling process, a set of drilling rigs must have the following systems and equipment:
(1) Lifting system: It is used for lifting and lowering drilling tools, replacing drill bits, and running casings.
(2) Rotating system: It is used to drive the drilling tool to rotate, break the rock, and deepen the borehole.
(3) Circulatory system: It is used to circulate the drilling fluid to clean the bottom of the well and carry out the broken cuttings to ensure continuous drilling.
(4) Power equipment: Diesel engines are mostly used to drive power equipment such as draw-works, turntables, and drilling pumps. Some drilling rigs are also driven by AC or DC motors.
(5) Transmission system: The main task is to transfer and distribute the energy of the power equipment to each working machine.
(6) Control system: In order to direct the various systems to work in a coordinated manner, a variety of control equipment, such as mechanical, hydraulic or electrical control devices, is equipped with centralized consoles and observation and recording instruments in the complete set of drilling rigs.
(7) Base: Including the base of the drill floor, the base of the machine room and the base of the drilling pump.
(8) Auxiliary equipment: Generally including wellhead blowout preventer, air compression equipment, auxiliary power generation equipment, auxiliary lifting equipment, wellhead tools and mobile houses, etc.
2. Wellhead tools
In order to lift, run and unload the drilling tools, manual wellhead tools such as tongs, elevators and slips are required.
The hanging clamp is composed of several clamp heads and clamp handles inlaid with tooth plates, which are connected to each other by hinges. The tongs are used to screw off the connecting thread of various downhole tools such as drill strings made of drill pipes,drill collar, etc.The tongs are used in pairs (one positive and one reverse) inside and outside, and the cat's head rope is used to turn the buckle.
The elevator is used to suspend, lift and lower the drill string. The inner diameter of the elevator is slightly larger than the outer diameter of the drill pipe, but smaller than the outer diameter of the drill pipe joint. During operation, the drill string joint is stuck to facilitate tripping.
The drill string in the well must be temporarily suspended on the rotary table when the drill string is screwed on or off. The slips installed in the rotary table bushing are used to block the drill pipe and suspend the drill string.
With the rapid increase in the number of deep wells, hard formations and offshore drilling, the workload of tripping operations has increased significantly.
The manual wellhead tools mentioned above need to be improved urgently because of their high labor consumption, low work efficiency and insecurity. At present, many kinds of power tongs and power slips have been widely used in drilling production. The speed of lifting and lowering the drilling is accelerated, the labor intensity of the workers is reduced, and the foundation is laid for the further realization of the overall mechanization and automation of the drilling work.
3. Blowout may occur when wellhead blowout preventer is used to drill high pressure oil and gas reservoir, which may cause serious accidents. In order to control the injection of drilling fluid, oil, gas and water when blowout occurs, blowout preventers are usually installed under the drill floor. At present, the drilling rigs produced at home and abroad are equipped with a complete set of perfect blowout preventer system.
Generally, each drilling rig is equipped with 3 to 4 sets of blowout preventers, such as ram blowout preventers, rotary blowout preventers and universal blowout preventers. There are three types of ram blowout preventers: single ram, double ram and triple ram. The structure of the gate has three types: blind gate, hole gate and scissors gate. The core of the hole ram is a hole. When a blowout occurs during drilling, the annular space between the drill string and the casing can be closed to prevent the drilling fluid, oil, gas, and water from gushing out of the well. It is also called a drill pipe blowout preventer.
The blind ram blowout preventer is also called a fully enclosed blowout preventer. Its core can directly seal the wellhead and is used when there is no drill pipe at the wellhead. The scissor gate can cut the pipe in the well in an emergency to ensure the safety of the wellhead.
The structural feature of the rotary blowout preventer is that its rubber core can rotate with the drill pipe while holding the drill pipe tightly, so that it can meet the technological requirements of side-jet drilling while sealing the annular space between the drill pipe and the casing. The rubber core of the universal blowout preventer can seal any drilling tool within a few seconds, gaining valuable rescue time.
When the drilling rig is equipped with ram blowout preventer, rotary blowout preventer and universal blowout preventer, they can be used separately or overlapped, which can realize new drilling technologies such as drilling while spraying, tripping and reverse circulation drilling. Most blowout preventers are equipped with manual and hydraulic control devices for remote control in case of emergency.