Oilfield drilling equipment usually consists of six systems:
1. Power system
Oilfield drilling equipment is like a small factory with high mobility and independent operation. Most of the working systems required by the drilling rig are diesel engines.
2. Hoisting system
Hoisting system is mainly used to lift drill string and run casing. The weight of a set of drill string can reach tens to more than 100 tons, and the heaviest weight of running casing can reach 400 or 500 tons.
3. Rotary system
The rotary system is used to rotate the drill string and provide torque to the bit. It is composed of turntable, turntable gearbox, faucet and kelly bar. Rotary table can be driven by drilling rig and directly driven by motor. The rotary system also has the functions of connecting and unloading the drill string and drilling tools. The ability of the rotary system depends on the capacity of the drilling equipment.
4. Circulation system
The drilling fluid (usually a mixture of water, clay and chemical treatment agent) is pumped into the high-pressure pipeline by the mud pump to the stand pipe of the drill floor. After passing through the hose and faucet, it enters the drill string and reaches the bottom hole bit. It returns to the ground from the annular space through the drill bit water hole, and then goes through the mud shaker and desander, desilt and degasser to remove cuttings and solid particles in the drilling fluid. Returning to the mud pit forms a circulation path from the surface to the downhole. The circulating system is also equipped with drilling fluid treatment device and storage tank.
5. Well control system
In the whole process of drilling operation, the well control system should control and deal with the complex situation that may occur in the well, so as to resume normal operation. The well control system consists of four main parts.
(1) BOP stack.
(2) Remote control panel of accumulator unit and BOP unit.
(3) Test manifold.
(4) Kill manifold.
6. Monitoring system
The monitoring system is used to monitor the downhole operation through comprehensive geological and drilling logging. The drilling parameters such as hook load, WOB, revolution, torque, pump pressure, displacement and ROP are recorded and measured by the instruments on the driller's console; in addition, the natural gas and hydrogen sulfide in the drilling fluid are monitored by the detectors in mud shaker, pump house, drill pipe yard and other places.